Code Owners (STARTER)
When contributing to a project, it can often be difficult to find out who should review or approve merge requests. Additionally, if you have a question over a specific file or code block, it may be difficult to know who to find the answer from.
GitLab Code Owners is a feature to define who owns specific files or paths in a repository, allowing other users to understand who is responsible for each file or path.
Why is this useful?
Code Owners allows for a version controlled single source of truth file outlining the exact GitLab users or groups that own certain files or paths in a repository. Code Owners can be utilized in the merge request approval process which can streamline the process of finding the right reviewers and approvers for a given merge request.
In larger organizations or popular open source projects, Code Owners can also be useful to understand who to contact if you have a question that may not be related to code review or a merge request approval.
How to set up Code Owners
You can use a
CODEOWNERS file to specify users or
that are responsible for certain files in a repository.
You can choose and add the
CODEOWNERS file in three places:
- To the root directory of the repository
- Inside the
- Inside the
CODEOWNERS file is scoped to a branch, which means that with the
introduction of new files, the person adding the new content can
specify themselves as a code owner, all before the new changes
get merged to the default branch.
When a file matches multiple entries in the
the users from last pattern matching the file are displayed on the
blob page of the given file. For example, you have the following
README.md @user1 # This line would also match the file README.md *.md @user2
The user that would show for
README.md would be
Approvals by Code Owners
Once you've set Code Owners to a project, you can configure it to be used for merge request approvals:
Once set, Code Owners are displayed in merge requests widgets:
CODEOWNERS file can be used in addition to Merge Request Approval Rules it can also be used as the sole driver of a Merge Request approval (without using Approval Rules) by simply creating the file in one of the three locations specified above, configuring the Code Owners to be required approvers for protected branches and then using the syntax of Code Owners files to specify the actual owners and granular permissions.
The syntax of Code Owners files
Files can be specified using the same kind of patterns you would use
.gitignore file followed by the
@username or email of one
or more users or by the
@name of one or more groups that should
be owners of the file. Groups must be added as members of the project,
or they will be ignored.
Starting in GitLab 13.0, you can now specify groups or subgroups from the project's group hierarchy as potential code owners.
For example, consider the following hierarchy for a given project:
group >> sub-group >> sub-subgroup >> myproject >> file.md
Any of the following groups would be eligible to be specified as code owners:
In addition, any groups that have been invited to the project using the Settings > Members tool will also be recognized as eligible code owners.
The order in which the paths are defined is significant: the last pattern that matches a given path will be used to find the code owners.
Starting a line with a
# indicates a comment. This needs to be
\# to address files for which the name starts with a
# This is an example of a code owners file # lines starting with a `#` will be ignored. # app/ @commented-rule # We can specify a default match using wildcards: * @default-codeowner # We can also specify "multiple tab or space" separated codeowners: * @multiple @code @owners # Rules defined later in the file take precedence over the rules # defined before. # This will match all files for which the file name ends in `.rb` *.rb @ruby-owner # Files with a `#` can still be accessed by escaping the pound sign \#file_with_pound.rb @owner-file-with-pound # Multiple codeowners can be specified, separated by spaces or tabs # In the following case the CODEOWNERS file from the root of the repo # has 3 code owners (@multiple @code @owners) CODEOWNERS @multiple @code @owners # Both usernames or email addresses can be used to match # users. Everything else will be ignored. For example this will # specify `@legal` and a user with email `email@example.com` as the # owner for the LICENSE file LICENSE @legal this_does_not_match firstname.lastname@example.org # Group names can be used to match groups and nested groups to specify # them as owners for a file README @group @group/with-nested/subgroup # Ending a path in a `/` will specify the code owners for every file # nested in that directory, on any level /docs/ @all-docs # Ending a path in `/*` will specify code owners for every file in # that directory, but not nested deeper. This will match # `docs/index.md` but not `docs/projects/index.md` /docs/* @root-docs # This will make a `lib` directory nested anywhere in the repository # match lib/ @lib-owner # This will only match a `config` directory in the root of the # repository /config/ @config-owner # If the path contains spaces, these need to be escaped like this: path\ with\ spaces/ @space-owner