Git on the command line (FREE)
Git is an open-source distributed version control system. GitLab is built on top of Git.
You can do many Git operations directly in GitLab. However, the command line is required for advanced tasks, like fixing complex merge conflicts or rolling back commits.
If you're new to Git and want to learn by working in your own project, learn how to make your first commit.
For a quick reference of Git commands, download a Git Cheat Sheet.
For more information about the advantages of working with Git and GitLab:
- Watch the GitLab Source Code Management Walkthrough video.
- Learn how GitLab became the backbone of the Worldline development environment.
To help you visualize what you're doing locally, you can install a Git GUI app.
Choose a terminal
To execute Git commands on your computer, you must open a terminal (also known as command prompt, command shell, and command line). Here are some options:
- For macOS users:
- For Windows users:
- For Linux users:
- Built-in Linux Terminal.
Confirm Git is installed
You can determine if Git is already installed on your computer by opening a terminal and running this command:
If Git is installed, the output is:
git version X.Y.Z
If your computer doesn't recognize
git as a command, you must install Git.
To start using Git from your computer, you must enter your credentials to identify yourself as the author of your work. The username and email address should match the ones you use in GitLab.
In your shell, add your user name:
git config --global user.name "your_username"
Add your email address:
git config --global user.email "email@example.com"
To check the configuration, run:
git config --global --list
--globaloption tells Git to always use this information for anything you do on your system. If you omit
--local, the configuration applies only to the current repository.
You can read more on how Git manages configurations in the Git configuration documentation.
Choose a repository
Before you begin, choose the repository you want to work in. You can use any project you have permission to access on GitLab.com or any other GitLab instance.
To use the repository in the examples on this page:
- Go to https://gitlab.com/gitlab-tests/sample-project/.
- In the top right, select Fork.
- Choose a namespace for your fork.
The project becomes available at
You can fork any project you have access to.
Clone a repository
When you clone a repository, the files from the remote repository are downloaded to your computer, and a connection is created.
This connection requires you to add credentials. You can either use SSH or HTTPS. SSH is recommended.
Clone with SSH
Clone with SSH when you want to authenticate only one time.
Authenticate with GitLab by following the instructions in the SSH documentation.
Go to your project's landing page and select Clone. Copy the URL for Clone with SSH.
Open a terminal and go to the directory where you want to clone the files. Git automatically creates a folder with the repository name and downloads the files there.
Run this command:
git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:gitlab-tests/sample-project.git
To view the files, go to the new directory:
Clone with HTTPS
Clone with HTTPS when you want to authenticate each time you perform an operation between your computer and GitLab.
Go to your project's landing page and select Clone. Copy the URL for Clone with HTTPS.
Open a terminal and go to the directory where you want to clone the files.
Run the following command. Git automatically creates a folder with the repository name and downloads the files there.
git clone https://gitlab.com/gitlab-tests/sample-project.git
GitLab requests your username and password:
- If you have 2FA enabled for your account, you must use a Personal Access Token
write_repositorypermissions instead of your account's password.
- If you don't have 2FA enabled, use your account's password.
- If you have 2FA enabled for your account, you must use a Personal Access Token with
To view the files, go to the new directory:
On Windows, if you enter your password incorrectly multiple times and an
Access denied message appears,
add your namespace (username or group) to the path:
git clone https://email@example.com/gitlab-org/gitlab.git.
Convert a local directory into a repository
You can initialize a local folder so Git tracks it as a repository.
Open the terminal in the directory you'd like to convert.
Run this command:
.gitfolder is created in your directory. This folder contains Git records and configuration files. You should not edit these files directly.
Add the path to your remote repository so Git can upload your files into the correct project.
Add a remote
You add a "remote" to tell Git which remote repository in GitLab is tied to the specific local folder on your computer. The remote tells Git where to push or pull from.
To add a remote to your local copy:
In GitLab, create a project to hold your files.
Visit this project's homepage, scroll down to Push an existing folder, and copy the command that starts with
git remote add.
On your computer, open the terminal in the directory you've initialized, paste the command you copied, and press enter:
git remote add origin firstname.lastname@example.org:username/projectpath.git
View your remote repositories
To view your remote repositories, type:
git remote -v
-v flag stands for verbose.
Download the latest changes in the project
To work on an up-to-date copy of the project, you
pull to get all the changes made by users
since the last time you cloned or pulled the project. Replace
with the name of your default branch
to get the main branch code, or replace it with the branch name of the branch
you are currently working in.
git pull <REMOTE> <name-of-branch>
When you clone a repository,
REMOTE is typically
origin. This is where the
repository was cloned from, and it indicates the SSH or HTTPS URL of the repository
on the remote server.
<name-of-branch> is usually the name of your
default branch, but it may be any
existing branch. You can create additional named remotes and branches as necessary.
You can learn more on how Git manages remote repositories in the Git Remote documentation.
A branch is a copy of the files in the repository at the time you create the branch.
You can work in your branch without affecting other branches. When
you're ready to add your changes to the main codebase, you can merge your branch into
the default branch, for example,
Use branches when you:
- Want to add code to a project but you're not sure if it works properly.
- Are collaborating on the project with others, and don't want your work to get mixed up.
A new branch is often called feature branch to differentiate from the default branch.
Create a branch
To create a feature branch:
git checkout -b <name-of-branch>
Branch names cannot contain empty spaces and special characters. Use only lowercase letters, numbers,
-), and underscores (
Switch to a branch
All work in Git is done in a branch. You can switch between branches to see the state of the files and work in that branch.
To switch to an existing branch:
git checkout <name-of-branch>
For example, to change to the
git checkout main
To view the differences between your local unstaged changes and the latest version that you cloned or pulled:
View the files that have changes
When you add, change, or delete files or folders, Git knows about the changes. To check which files have been changed:
Add and commit local changes
When you type
git status, locally changed files are shown in red. These changes may
be new, modified, or deleted files or folders.
To stage a file for commit:
git add <file-name OR folder-name>
Repeat step 1 for each file or folder you want to add. Or, to stage all files in the current directory and subdirectory, type
git add ..
Confirm that the files have been added to staging:
The files should be displayed in green text.
To commit the staged files:
git commit -m "COMMENT TO DESCRIBE THE INTENTION OF THE COMMIT"
Stage and commit all changes
As a shortcut, you can add all local changes to staging and commit them with one command:
git commit -a -m "COMMENT TO DESCRIBE THE INTENTION OF THE COMMIT"
Send changes to GitLab.com
To push all local changes to the remote repository:
git push <remote> <name-of-branch>
For example, to push your local commits to the
main branch of the
git push origin main
Sometimes Git does not allow you to push to a repository. Instead, you must force an update.
Delete all changes in the branch
To discard all changes to tracked files:
git checkout .
This action removes changes to files, not the files themselves. Untracked (new) files do not change.
Unstage all changes that have been added to the staging area
To unstage (remove) all files that have not been committed:
Undo most recent commit
To undo the most recent commit:
git reset HEAD~1
This action leaves the changed files and folders unstaged in your local repository.
WARNING: A Git commit should not be reversed if you already pushed it to the remote repository. Although you can undo a commit, the best option is to avoid the situation altogether by working carefully.
You can learn more about the different ways Git can undo changes in the Git Undoing Things documentation.
Merge a branch with default branch
When you are ready to add your changes to the default branch, you merge the feature branch into it:
git checkout <default-branch> git merge <feature-branch>
In GitLab, you typically use a merge request to merge your changes, instead of using the command line.
To create a merge request from a fork to an upstream repository, see the forking workflow.
Advanced use of Git through the command line
For an introduction of more advanced Git techniques, see Git rebase, force-push, and merge conflicts.
Synchronize changes in a forked repository with the upstream
To create a copy of a repository in your namespace, you fork it.
Changes made to your copy of the repository are not automatically synchronized with the original.
To keep the project in sync with the original project, you need to
pull from the original repository.
You must create a link to the remote repository to pull
changes from the original repository. It is common to call this remote repository the